22 September 2008
Re-issued as received
UN Secretary-General Urges Africa and Donors to Turn Vision into Action
VIENNA, 22 September (UN Information Service) - Most of Africa's economies are now growing more strongly than they did a decade ago, and even faster than in many other developing regions. Yet despite such progress, reports UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, Africa remains "off track" in its quest to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other development targets. African countries and their international partners alike thus need to redouble their efforts, not by making new commitments, but by turning existing pledges into reality and "vision into policy actions."
The Secretary-General's report (A/63/130) - a comprehensive balance-sheet of achievements and shortfalls, analysis and recommendations - was mandated by the UN General Assembly for its 22 September 2008 high-level meeting on Africa's development needs. The meeting will be the first thorough assessment by UN Member States of actions taken by Africa and the international community since African leaders adopted the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) as the continent's main blueprint in 2001.
The meeting also takes place at the mid-point of the global campaign for the MDGs, as concern mounts that Africa is lagging behind other world regions. While a number of African countries have made notable progress on some goals, the Secretary-General finds, no African country is likely to achieve all of the MDGs by 2015, on the basis of current trends. Two-fifths of the African population lives in extreme poverty. Compounding the challenge of persistent and extreme poverty, Africa is also facing several looming problems: a global food crisis, profound climate change and soaring energy prices.
To overcome such difficulties, Africa and its partners have made a number of commitments in recent years. However, notes the Secretary-General, those commitments, on both sides, "remain only partially realized."
In 2005, a summit meeting of the Group of Eight (G-8) industrialized countries agreed to double aid to Africa by 2010. By the following year, overall official development assistance to Africa (excluding debt relief) had risen by only 8 per cent, and since then, reports the Secretary-General, "donors are falling behind." A greater share of European Union (EU) assistance is now going to Africa, reaching 62 per cent in 2006, although in 2007 there was a slight decline in global EU aid commitments. The Secretary-General proposes that external finance for development in Africa reach $72 bn annually to support achievement of the MDGs.
The Secretary-General also reports that while there have been improvements in how donors deliver aid to Africa, aid programmes still often remain uncoordinated and are directed only partially to recipient countries' national development priorities. His criticisms do not spare the United Nations, where there has been a tendency "to support a proliferation of Africa-related activities, which creates incoherence."
One bright spot has been on the debt front. As of July 2008, nineteen African countries had received major reductions in their official debt to governments and multilateral institutions. As a result, Africa's total official debt fell from $205.7 bn in 1999 to $144.5 bn in 2007. However, the Secretary-General cautions, Africa's private debt has been creeping up, from $92.4 bn to $110.2 bn over the same period. Debt relief should be extended to other African countries as well, he recommends.
Progress in improving Africa's trade prospects has been very limited, reports the Secretary-General. The Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations stand "at a critical juncture," he notes. In particular, Africa countries have been pressing for a reduction in agricultural subsidies by the EU, US, Japan and Canada, which have totalled $750 bn since 2001 and which greatly depress the world market prices for Africa's agricultural exports. The Secretary-General strongly urges a reduction in such agricultural subsidies, as well as other trade reforms to improve market access for African exports.
Peace and security
To help Africa better resolve armed conflicts, the G-8 pledged in 2005 to train 25,000 African peacekeepers and provide technical support to the African Union's projected African Standby Force. The US alone is expected to train some 75,000 troops in Africa by 2010, and the EU transferred €250 mn to the African Union's peace and security efforts between 2005 and 2007. The Secretary-General notes, however, that such G-8 assistance has been provided "on an unharmonized and ad hoc basis."
African countries themselves need to do more to enhance domestic revenues and improve the productivity of their economies, the Secretary-General argues. To support NEPAD's agricultural development programme, African governments pledged in 2003 to devote 10 per cent of their public expenditures to agriculture and rural development by 2008. So far, only six African countries have met that target. Similarly, African governments agreed in 2001 to increase their health budgets to 15 per cent of public expenditure. But only six countries have reached that goal.
Under NEPAD, a number of African governments agreed to establish a voluntary scheme to review each other's adherence to democracy, human rights and good governance, known as the African Peer Review Mechanism. To date, 29 countries - more than half - have acceded to the mechanism and seven have completed such a peer review. The Secretary-General recommends that African governments, media and civil society groups do more to involve their citizens in the peer review process. He also suggests that African countries embark on a similar peer review exercise of their activities to achieve the MDGs.
African women have made some political gains, the Secretary-General reports, with the share of women holding parliamentary seats rising from just 7 per cent in 1990 to 17 per cent in 2007. More generally, the Secretary-General recommends that African countries strengthen mechanisms "for participation, inclusion and empowerment of all segments of society" in their political and development processes.
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For more information, please contact:
Africa Section, Department of Public Information
Telephone: (+1-212) 963-4513
The full text of the Secretary-General's report on "Africa's Development Needs" can be found at the Africa Renewal website: www.un.org/AR. At the home page, click on "NEPAD/UN Reports".