17 October 2005
Security Council Condemns Increase in Flow of Weapons to Somalia, Re-Establishes Group Monitoring Arms Embargo for Six Months
Resolution 1630 (2005) Adopted Unanimously; Report Says Upswing in Embargo Violations "Sustained and Dramatic"
NEW YORK, 14 October (UN Headquarters) -- Condemning the significant increase of the flow of weapons and ammunitions to Somalia, the Security Council this afternoon requested the Secretary-General to re-establish the Group that monitors the arms embargo against that country.
Through the unanimous adoption of resolution 1630 (2005), the Council also requested the Committee on Somalia established in 1992 to consult with the Secretary-General on the re-activation of the Monitoring Group and recommend ways to improve compliance with the embargo in response to the continuing violations. Financial arrangements to support the work of the Monitoring Group were also requested from the Secretary-General by the resolution.
In its latest report to the Council, the Group said there had been a sustained and dramatic increase in arms embargo violations over the past six months. That increase in the flow of arms was a manifestation of the highly aggravated political tensions between the Transitional Federal Government and the opposition, which has given rise to increasing militarization and severely elevated threat of widespread violence in central and southern Somalia.
According to today's resolution, the Group would be re-established 30 days from today for a period of six months, with a mandate to continue to investigate all activities involved in the violations of the arms embargo, including revenue generation and transport.
The resolution also mandates the Group to continue refining and updating information on the draft list of individuals and groups that violate the embargo, in order to facilitate possible measures by the Council.
The meeting of the Council began at 12:05 p.m. and adjourned at 12:09 p.m.
The full text of resolution 1630 (2005) reads, as follows:
"The Security Council,
"Reaffirming its previous resolutions and the statements of its President concerning the situation in Somalia, in particular resolution 733 (1992) of 23 January 1992, which established an embargo on all delivery of weapons and military equipment to Somalia (hereinafter referred to as the "arms embargo"), resolution 1519 (2003) of 16 December 2003, resolution 1558 (2004) of 17 August 2004 and resolution 1587 (2005) of 15 March 2005,
"Reaffirming the importance of the sovereignty, territorial integrity, political independence and unity of Somalia,
"Reiterating the urgent need for all Somali leaders to take tangible steps to begin political dialogue,
"Reaffirming its strong support for the leadership of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General in his efforts in fostering inclusive dialogue, particularly through his road map for dialogue among the leaders of the Transitional Federal Institutions,
"Stressing the need for the Transitional Federal Institutions to continue working towards establishing effective national governance in Somalia,
"Commending the efforts of the African Union and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development in support of the Transitional Federal Institutions and welcoming the African Union's continued support for national reconciliation in Somalia,
"Taking note of the report of the Monitoring Group dated 22 August 2005 (S/2005/625, annex) submitted pursuant to paragraph 3 (i) of resolution 1587 (2005) and the observations and recommendations contained therein,
"Condemning the significant increase in the flow of weapons and ammunition supplies to and through Somalia, which constitutes a violation of the arms embargo and a serious threat to the Somali peace process,
"Reiterating its insistence that all Member States, in particular those in the region, should refrain from any action in contravention of the arms embargo and should take all necessary steps to hold violators accountable,
"Reiterating and underscoring the importance of enhancing the monitoring of the arms embargo in Somalia through persistent and vigilant investigation into the violations, bearing in mind that strict enforcement of the arms embargo will improve the overall security situation in Somalia,
"Determining that the situation in Somalia constitutes a threat to international peace and security in the region,
"Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations,
"1. Stresses the obligation of all Member States to comply fully with the measures imposed by resolution 733 (1992);
"2. Expresses its intention, in light of the report of the Monitoring Group dated 22 August 2005 (S/2005/625, annex), to consider specific actions to improve implementation of and compliance with measures imposed by resolution 733 (1992);
"3. Decides to request the Secretary-General, in consultation with the Committee established pursuant to resolution 751 (1992) of 24 April 1992 (hereinafter referred to as "the Committee"), to re-establish within thirty days from the date of the adoption of this resolution, and for a period of six months, the Monitoring Group referred to in paragraph 3 of resolution 1558 (2004), with the following mandate:
(a) to continue the tasks outlined in paragraphs 3 (a) to (c) of resolution 1587 (2005);
(b) to continue to investigate, in coordination with relevant international agencies, all activities, including in the financial, maritime and other sectors, which generate revenues used to commit arms embargo violations;
(c) to continue to investigate any means of transport, routes, seaports, airports and other facilities used in connection with arms embargo violations;
(d) to continue refining and updating information on the draft list of those individuals and entities who violate the measures implemented by Member States in accordance with resolution 733 (1992), inside and outside Somalia, and their active supporters, for possible future measures by the Council, and to present such information to the Committee as and when the Committee deems appropriate;
(e) to continue making recommendations based on its investigations, on the previous reports of the Panel of Experts (S/2003/223 and S/2003/1035) appointed pursuant to resolutions 1425 (2002) of 22 July 2002 and 1474 (2003) of 8 April 2003, and on the previous reports of the Monitoring Group (S/2004/604 and S/2005/153) appointed pursuant to resolutions 1519 (2003) of 16 December 2003, 1558 (2004) of 17 August 2004 and 1587 (2005) of 15 March 2005;
(f) to work closely with the Committee on specific recommendations for additional measures to improve overall compliance with the arms embargo;
(g) to assist in identifying areas where the capacities of States in the region can be strengthened to facilitate the implementation of the arms embargo;
(h) to provide to the Council, through the Committee, a midterm briefing within 90 days from its establishment;
(i) to submit, for the Security Council's consideration, through the Committee, a final report covering all the tasks set out above, no later than 15 days prior to the termination of the Monitoring Group's mandate;
"4. Further requests the Secretary-General to make the necessary financial arrangements to support the work of the Monitoring Group;
"5. Reaffirms paragraphs 4, 5, 7, 8 and 10 of resolution 1519 (2003);
"6. Requests the Committee, in accordance with its mandate and in consultation with the Monitoring Group and other relevant United Nations entities, to consider and recommend to the Council ways to improve implementation of and compliance with the arms embargo, in response to continuing violations;
"7. Further requests the Committee to consider, when appropriate, a visit to Somalia and/or the region by its Chairman and those he may designate, as approved by the Committee, to demonstrate the Security Council's determination to give full effect to the arms embargo;
"8. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter."
When the Security Council met today to consider the situation in Somalia, it had before a letter dated 5 October 2005 to the Council President from the Chairman of the Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 751 (1992) concerning Somalia, which attaches the report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia pursuant to Council resolution 1587 (2005) (document S/2005/625).
The report notes that during the current mandate period, arms embargo violations took a sustained and dramatic upswing, even when compared with violations of the previous period, which were also continual and numerous. Those involved in committing the violations included both members of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and members of the opposition in Mogadishu, as well as certain States in the region, whose more visible involvement in the affairs of Somalia in terms of providing arms to the side of their choice allegedly reflects their own strategic and vital interests.
The dramatic upswing in the flow of arms into Somalia is a manifestation of the highly aggravated political tensions between TFG and the opposition, the report continues. This has correspondingly given rise to the increasing militarization of both sides, which has resulted in a severely elevated threat of widespread violence in central and southern Somalia. Members of the opposition who committed arms embargo violations during the current mandate period -- some of them dissident members of the TFG -- are the same individuals who have been identified in the Monitoring Group's past reports as warlords who have demonstrated through their actions and activities that they do not want to see a Government established in Somalia that would infringe or overturn their personal political and economic vested interests. A number of these same individuals have well established and entrenched local administrations that are a reflection of their vested interests.
The Monitoring Group has obtained a better understanding of the structure and organization of some important local administrations and, as a result, has a better appreciation of the sources of the revenue that accrues to those in charge. In particular, the Monitoring Group has identified certain key revenue generators in the area of marine fisheries and the export of huge commercial quantities of charcoal by cargo ships that provide the bulk of known earned revenue to certain powerful local administrations. Reliance on shipping and the fishing industry is necessary to complete the financial circuit. The Monitoring Group firmly believes that revenues thus obtained are used by those in charge to help maintain their militias and for purchasing arms.
The Monitoring Group recommends, therefore, that the Council consider enhancing and strengthening the existing arms embargo by adopting an integrated arms embargo for the purpose of reducing the financial capacity of individuals in charge of local administrations to buy arms in violation of the arms embargo. The Monitoring Group defines the concept of the integrated arms embargo as a process that includes several aspects, including a trade embargo on the export of charcoal originating in Somalia and a ban on foreign vessels fishing in Somali waters. The purpose of the approach is to enhance the overall effectiveness of the enforcement of the arms embargo on Somalia by reducing the funds available for the local administrations, warlords and others that have been engaged in the purchase of arms in violation of the embargo. The desired effect is to stem the unrestrained flow of arms into Somalia by key arms embargo violators.
The report notes that, in paragraph 3 (d) of its resolution 1587 (2005), the Council requested the Monitoring Group to continue refining and updating information on the draft list of individuals and entities who violate the measures implemented by Member States in accordance with resolution 733 (1992), inside and outside Somalia, and their active supporters, for the purpose of possible future measures by the Council, and to present such information to the Committee established pursuant to resolution 751 (1992) as and when the Committee deems appropriate. The Monitoring Group continues to refine and update the draft list.
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