Press Releases

    GA/SPD/299
    28 October 2004

    Developed Countries Urged to Play a Larger Role in Providing Troops, as Fourth Committee Continues Debate on Peacekeeping Operations

    Delegates Also Address Security of Peacekeepers, Gender Perspective, Training

    NEW YORK, 27 October (UN Headquarters) -- It was high time the developed countries took up a larger share of the troop demand for United Nations peacekeeping operations, Brazil’s representative told the Fourth Committee (Special Political and Decolonization) this morning as it continued its comprehensive review of peacekeeping operations.

    Speaking on behalf of the Rio Group, he noted that developing countries made up about 90 per cent of troop contributors to United Nations peacekeeping missions, adding that their nationals should also have easier access to decision-making positions in the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO). 

    In addition, while planning and deploying missions, the DPKO should take into account the financial difficulties faced by developing countries and create a mechanism to allow troop-contributing countries to be reimbursed in advance.  Despite improvements in reimbursement procedures, there was no agreement concerning the updating of reimbursement fees for their troops.

    Pointing out that United Nations peace operations had been proven to increase the chances for lasting, fair and sustainable peace, he said that crucial steps required to consolidate democratic institutions in countries emerging from conflict included fostering development; promoting the rule of law; establishing trustworthy justice mechanisms; meeting the special needs of children and women; and ensuring successful disarmament, demobilization and reintegration processes.

    Cuba’s delegate, while supporting peacekeeping operations based on the principles of consent of the parties, non-use of force except in self-defence, clear mandates and guaranteed financing, emphasized that notions of “humanitarian intervention”, “responsibility to protect” and “protection culture” contradicted the principles of sovereignty and non-interference in the internal affairs of States.  The need to provide aid to millions of people could not serve as a pretext to introduce doubtful concepts that rewrote international law in order to meet the interventionist interests of a small group of very powerful countries.  In cases of conflict, the means of the Organization did not end with the broad authority of the Security Council, but with the General Assembly where there was no space for global or regional hegemony.

    Guatemala’s representative said that preventing conflict while building and maintaining peace was cheaper than war.  It was therefore necessary to prepare public opinion for the fact that supply must meet the increasing demand for complex peacekeeping operations.  The work of the United Nations regarding peacekeeping was at a crossroads, and the question might be asked whether the Organization had sufficient management capacities, troops, resources and political will to meet the increasing demand for bigger and more complex missions.

    India’s representative, while agreeing with other speakers that multidisciplinary peacekeeping operations should ensure a seamless transition to peace-building, cautioned against confusing the two.  Peacekeeping should be a short-term and specific mission while peace-building was a longer-term task that should be left to United Nations agencies.  The rule of law was central to post-conflict peace-building, but a one-size-fits-all approach, or one based on foreign models, must be eschewed.

    Also addressing the issue of the rule of law in peacekeeping operations, the representative of Serbia and Montenegro said it was essential to base all activities aimed at establishing the rule of law on substantive participation by all national constituencies.  However, broad public participation was only possible if the security needs of the population were met.  In some cases, the United Nations had failed to ensure a secure environment conducive to the restoration of the rule of law.  The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) had failed to provide security for all inhabitants and a delay in the deployment of the Mission’s rule-of-law components had, among other things, created a culture of impunity in cases of ethnically-motivated violence.

    Among other topics discussed were the importance of security for United Nations and associated peacekeeping personnel; the mainstreaming of a gender perspective throughout all peacekeeping activities; and the importance of training in peacekeeping.  Speakers also emphasized the importance of an integrated, holistic approach to peacekeeping that addressed both the underlying causes of conflicts and post-conflict development.

    Other speakers this morning included representatives of Algeria, Kuwait, Jamaica (on behalf of the Caribbean Community), Yemen, Nepal, China, Iran, Kenya, Peru, Cyprus, Indonesia, the Philippines, Iceland, Fiji, Ukraine, Mali, the Sudan and Myanmar.

    The Fourth Committee will meet again at 10 a.m. tomorrow, Thursday 28 October, to conclude its comprehensive review of the whole question of peacekeeping operations in all their aspects.  It is also expected to begin its consideration of assistance in mine action.

    Background

    The Fourth Committee (Special Political and Decolonization) met this morning to continue its comprehensive review of the whole question of peacekeeping operations in all their aspects.

    Statements

    REGINALDO DOS SANTOS (Brazil), speaking on behalf of the Rio Group, said about 90 per cent of troop contributors were developing countries and it was high time the developed countries took up a larger share of the troop demand for peacekeeping operations.  He noted that most contributors to the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) were members of the Rio Group.  It was also necessary that nationals from developing countries have easier access to decision-making positions in the DPKO.  It was a matter of great concern that the important efforts of the Training and Evaluation Service in the Military Division of the DPKO (TES/MD) had been drastically reduced due to budgetary reasons, as its work was of great importance in unifying peacekeeping operations among Member States.

    He said that more than focusing on providing the necessary means for existing missions, there was a need for all Member States to cooperate constructively in solving the structural problems arising from the present surge in peacekeeping operations.  In that regard, the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations was an essential instrument.  In spite of improvements in reimbursement procedures, there was no agreement concerning the updating of reimbursement fees for troops.  While planning and deploying missions, the DPKO should take into account the difficulties, particularly financial ones, faced by developing countries.  A mechanism must be created to allow for reimbursement in advance for troops deployed by developing countries.

    United Nations peace missions had been proven to increase the chances for durable, fair and sustainable peace, he said.  Provisional truces underscored by peacekeepers tended to evolve positively.  The United Nations must work to perfect its methods and keep the positive momentum of peacekeeping, the success of which depended increasingly on the ability to incorporate multidimensional mission activities addressing the root causes of conflict.  Fostering development, promoting the rule of law, establishing trustworthy justice mechanisms, meeting the special needs of children and women and ensuring successful disarmament, demobilization and reintegration activities, were crucial steps in consolidating democratic institutions in countries emerging from conflict.

    NADJEH BAAZIZ (Algeria), aligning herself with the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), said that for millions of people, peacekeeping missions were the best or only hope of conflict resolution.  Peacekeeping activities were becoming more multidimensional, implementing peace agreements, managing transition towards peace, supervising humanitarian programmes and organizing elections.  The missions were based on consent of the parties, non-use of except in self-defence,

    a realistic mandate, and solid financing.  Missions also depended on an integrated approach by the entire United Nations system.  That meant that the Organization, including the Economic and Social Council, should work closely with international financial institutions and regional organizations.

    The United Nations was now better equipped to support missions in the field more rapidly, she said.  However, new missions were often hampered by a lack of staff and troops.  The United Nations was called upon to cooperate with regional arrangements in conflict prevention, humanitarian missions and post-conflict rebuilding.  Africa was confronting major challenges in peacekeeping and should profit the most from such efforts.  Through the African Union and the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), Africa had shown the will to address its problems.  The arrangements set up based on Security Council resolution 1353 (2001) regarding consultations between the Council and troop-contributing countries should be further strengthened to properly address the concerns of troop contributors.

    BASSAM AL-GABANDI (Kuwait), endorsing the NAM statement, noted the complexity of current peacekeeping operations, saying that in order to enhance their effectiveness, there must be clear mandates and close coordination between the Security Council and troop-contributing countries at all stages.  Preventive diplomacy and early warning should be reinforced and adequate funding provided.  There must also be a comprehensive overview of all activities and strengthened standby arrangements for rapid deployment.

    Welcoming the DPKO’s efforts towards those ends, he said his country was supporting United Nations efforts toward elections and sovereignty in Iraq.  Kuwait also continued to pay its financial commitments and urged other countries to do the same, in full and on time.  In addition, the security of peacekeeping staff must be assured, and the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations should be thanked for its efforts in that and all other areas regarding the improvement of peacekeeping operations.

    MICHELLE WALKER (Jamaica), speaking on behalf of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and aligning herself with the NAM, said that while peacekeeping and peace-building had to be done together, there must be a clear distinction between those two aspects.  Peacekeeping should include a well-thought-out exit strategy, while on the peace-building side, there should be an avoidance of duplication by the various entities involved.

    Welcoming the fact that MINUSTAH was multidimensional, she said that long-term peace-building in Haiti should involve the Ad Hoc Advisory Group on Haiti, as well as sustained and tangible commitment on the part of the international community. Jamaica had provided 10 civilian police officers to the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL), and from that experience, had learned that there may be difficulties with the on-call list for policing specialists.  Any consideration of a specialist civilian police force should take into account the ways in which States with limited capacity participated in peacekeeping operations.  There also should be a review of the staffing structure and grade levels of current gender adviser posts to ensure coherence between Headquarters and the field.  There should be more information on the work undertaken regarding gender issues in general.

    MOHAMMED ALI AL-OTMI (Yemen), aligning himself with the NAM, said that the recent reorganizations of the DPKO was based on the objective of preventing conflict.  All people aspired to peace and progress.  Yemen appreciated the briefing by the Under-Secretary-General, which had not only addressed the progress made, but also highlighted deficiencies in peacekeeping operations.

    He said neutrality and universality must be the basic principles of peacekeeping operations and their collective nature should not be limited to certain countries at the expense of others.  Yemen had provided troops to meet the needs of United Nations peacekeeping and thanks to the DPKO training units, it had participated in peacekeeping operations in Liberia and Cote d’Ivoire.

    SAGAR SUMSHER RANA (Nepal), aligning himself with the NAM, said that his country had been a consistent contributor to United Nations peacekeeping operations since 1958.  More than 2,600 Nepalese security personnel were deployed in 12 peacekeeping missions.  46,000 Nepalese nationals had served as blue helmets, and 48 of them had made the ultimate sacrifice in the service of peace and humanity.  However, financial and logistical constraints made participation by countries like Nepal difficult.  The United Nations should offer its help to such countries in bridging equipment shortfalls.  Strengthening of strategic deployment stocks must be undertaken in earnest.

    Regarding the policy of equal treatment for all United Nations employees, including those participating in peacekeeping missions, he stressed that troop-contributing countries must be provided their rightful opportunity to serve in managerial capacities. Those who put their lives on the line deserved at least an equal, if not preferential, opportunity to take the lead role, both on mission and at Headquarters.  Also, peacekeeping was certainly an effective tool to secure peace, but not an end in itself.  Lasting peace was possible only through sincere efforts by the international community to address the root causes of conflicts, such as poverty.

    WANG GUANGYA (China) said that reforms in peacekeeping had achieved marked results, making current missions multidimensional.  Those successes had increased demand, which required greater political will and financial support in order to continue to fulfil United Nations peacekeeping capabilities.  At the same time, it was necessary to have coherent exit strategies for all missions.

    Further reform should be done in strict compliance with the United Nations Charter and with clear strategies for which all components had been well-planned, he said.  In terms of peace-building, the entities concerned must strengthen their division of labour.  Complementarity of regional organizations must be improved as well as such organizations had proved very useful; African regional organizations should be supported in that light.  In addition, the Secretariat was right to prioritize the security of personnel.  China was heavily involved in peacekeeping operations around the world and would continue to participate actively within its means and abilities.

    HOSSEIN MALEKI (Iran) said that international security would be best maintained by respecting the sovereignty of all States.  Peacekeeping should not be seen as a substitute for permanent solutions to conflicts, which should be sought through political, social and developmental instruments.

    Rapid deployment capabilities should be strengthened, he said.  In addition, the efforts of regional organizations should complement, not substitute, United Nations functions in peacekeeping.  The geographical distribution of the DPKO staff should be improved in further recruitment as should systems for monitoring and reporting cases of misconduct in peacekeeping operations.

    The current world situation underlined the importance of continued commitment and support by all Member States to peacekeeping, he said.  In that regard, Iran was fully prepared to participate actively in any effort aimed at maintaining the peace and security of the world. In that light, it welcomed measures to enhance the capacity of emerging troop-contributing countries, such as training, technical advice and exchange of experiences.

    JUDITH BAHEMUKA (Kenya) outlined some of her country’s peace support activities, including its participation in the Sudan and Somali peace processes and deployment of about 2,000 men and women in eight United Nations peacekeeping missions. With such contributions and increasing regional efforts, Africa had shown a willingness to play its part in managing conflicts. That did not in any way mean that the United Nations would be sub-contracting missions to regional and subregional organizations, which were complementing the Organization’s work.

    In that light, African nations must be supported to achieve the required capabilities in training, contracts, provision of resources and coordination, she said. To minimize the risk of failure, there must be a centralized system responsible for managing contributions by African partners. There had been many worthy efforts by the DPKO in that regard, but troop-contributing countries must be better accommodated in the Department, and should be ensured that mission leaders should come from contingents with a sizeable force in any given mission.

    She endorsed the call for an increase in women deployed in missions, noting that Kenya had women in six missions. Hopefully, some of them would be nominated to staff positions at Headquarters. Kenya offered training at its Peace Support Training Centre, being aware of the importance of such training initiatives.  Finally, the families of those killed or injured while on mission should receive just consideration in a number of ways, including compensation.  Kenya remained committed to improving the effectiveness of United Nations peacekeeping in all its aspects.

    KIRIP CHALIHA (India), associating himself with the NAM, supported the new muscular or “robust” concept of peacekeeping and agreed that multidisciplinary peacekeeping operations should ensure a seamless transition to peace-building. However, the two should not be confused.  Peacekeeping should be short-term and specific, while peace-building was longer-term and should be left to the agencies.  In addition, funds and programmes of the United Nations system must, in the final analysis, be locally owned. Peacekeepers could only lay a foundation for reconciliation and development efforts.

    The rule of law was central to post-conflict peace-building and a one-size-fits-all approach, or one based on foreign models, must be eschewed, he said.  The United Nations should restrict itself to playing a supportive and facilitating role.  Regional solutions to conflicts, while expedient, should not absolve the Security Council of its primary responsibilities for the maintenance of international peace and security.

    Standby arrangements must be implemented only after thorough review and discussion in inter-governmental forums, and must be built on mutually beneficial terms for the United Nations and troop-contributing countries, he said.  Regarding the security of personnel, the best insurance was proper planning and mandating of missions, including well-trained, equipped and disciplined contingents that were not deployed in a void or where the political process was either non-existent or compromised.  India strongly supported triangular cooperation among the troop-contributing countries, the Security Council and the Secretariat.

    ROLANDO RUIZ ROSAS CATERIANO (Peru), associating himself with the Rio Group, said the United Nations was faced with an increasing demand in peacekeeping operations.  Its current 16 missions concerned mainly domestic armed conflicts and intra-state conflicts, which had evolved into multidimensional operations.  The military capacity of missions had increased, and police components and civilian services had been added. That adaptation should not detract from the common denominator of the conflicts, namely poverty and marginalization.  Peacekeeping operations should incorporate nation building.

    He said rapid deployment was key in dealing with intra-state conflicts in order to prevent them from turning into infernos that threatened basic human rights.  Peru had contributed to missions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea-Ethiopia, Liberia and Haiti, despite financial difficulties.  There should be a mechanism to compensate in advance developing countries participating in peacekeeping operations.  Training promoted effective action in the field, and Peru had established a peacekeeping operations training centre and would host a second seminar on Training Module II.

    RODNEY LOPEZ CLEMENTE (Cuba), associating himself with the NAM, said his country supported the principles of consent of the parties, non-use of force except in self-defence, clear mandates and guaranteed financing, especially in cases of so-called “humanitarian interventions”, “responsibility to protect” and “protection culture”, which contradicted the principles of sovereignty and non-interference in the internal affairs of States. The necessity of aid for millions of people could not serve as a pretext to introduce doubtful concepts that rewrote international law, in order to meet the interventionist interests of a small group of very powerful countries. The General Assembly should exercise its authority decisively, even with regard to conflicts. That meant that in cases of conflict, the means of the United Nations did not end with the broad authority of the Security Council, but in the Assembly itself, where there was no space for global or regional hegemony.

    Cuba shared the concern of other delegations regarding delays in refunds to troop contributing countries, he said, underlining also the necessity of fighting the actual causes of conflict. Without development, there could never be peace.  Cuba also regretted the persistence of double standards and discriminatory criteria when the Council decided upon a peacekeeping mission. As long as that situation existed, peacekeeping operations could not be used to settle conflicts that had lacked a definite settlement for several decades, and the world would continue to be a place where peace remained a utopia.

    ANDREAS D. MAVROYIANNIS (Cyprus), associating himself with the European Union, said that last Friday, in adopting resolution 1568 (2004), the Security Council had extended the mandate of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) for a further six months and endorsed the recommendations of the Secretary-General regarding reduction of the Force by about 30 per cent.  The recommendations were based on the results of the DPKO’s professional, objective and in-depth assessment of the situation.

    He said the violation of the human rights of the people of Cyprus remained unchanged. The number of Turkish troops on the island remained at the same level, the violation of the military status quo in Strovilia persisted, and the restrictions of movement by the Turkish and Turkish-Cypriot forces continued to hinder the operations of the UNFICYP. Cyprus expected that in the coming months the UNFICYP would be fully engaged in demining the buffer zone and working to encourage all initiatives that contributed to reconciliation, normalization and creation of an environment conducive to efforts to solve the Cyprus problem. In that regard, the promotion and implementation of confidence-building measures was crucial.

    WILLEM RAMPANGILEI (Indonesia), associating himself with the NAM, said that only robust peacekeeping, backed up by adequate resources, had any chance of success.  For that purpose, adequate and targeted training was essential. In managing the increased needs of peacekeeping, the commitment gap between developed and developing nations should be closed.  Strengthening the coordination and cooperation between United Nations peacekeeping operations and regional arrangements would also have a positive impact. There was also a need to enhance the safety and security of peacekeeping personnel, to achieve harmonious civilian-military relations within peacekeeping operations, as well as the highest standards of behaviour on the part of all staff members.

    Regarding integration, he stressed the importance of coordination between the United Nations system and other international organizations.  Similarly, the discrepancy between activities funded through assessed contributions and those relying on voluntary contributions must be squarely addressed. The ultimate object of peacekeeping, it must not be forgotten, was to accelerate the process of development.  In order to do that, the root causes of conflict must be addressed.  Also of continuing importance was the creation of a “rapid reimbursement policy” for troop-contributing countries and strict compliance with the United Nations Charter by all peacekeeping mandates.

    LESLIE GATAN (Philippines) stressed the need for rapid deployment, for which ongoing and substantive consultations between the Security Council, the DPKO and troop-contributing countries were required.  To improve coordination on mission planning and training, the Philippines had established a Peacekeeping Operations Centre, mandated to train and form stand-by units. In addition, rotation schedules should become part of mission planning.

    As a troop-contributing country, the Philippines was gravely concerned about accidents, attacks and other violence against United Nations peacekeepers, he said, urging that a clear set of guidelines for precaution and protection be put in place.  Conflict prevention required good intelligence, which could also be provided by United Nations field offices.  Finally, peacekeeping must be coordinated in a comprehensive manner, which could only happen if all major United Nations bodies acted in a coordinated fashion.

    HJALMAR W. HANNESON (Iceland) said his country’s commitment to United Nations peacekeeping was clear from its high per capita financial contributions to the assessed budget for peacekeeping operations.  It had recently established the Icelandic Crisis Response Unit (ICRU), which had deployed medical professionals and police officers with peacekeeping missions in the Balkans.  Iceland’s main operations were now at Kabul International Airport and in the Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission.  It was also present in Sarajevo with the European Union Police Mission.  The ICRU participated in election observation missions and was also the official liaison with Landsbjorg’s International Rescue Team in Reykjavik, which was allied with the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

    Agreeing that the safety of peacekeeping personnel was of paramount concern and that measures must be taken to ensure their safety, he strongly condemned vicious attacks on peacekeeping personnel, such as the one last Saturday, when Icelandic peacekeepers had been the target of a suicide bomber in Kabul.  While preventing armed conflicts continued to be one of the major goals of the United Nations, it was clear that resolving conflicts and building lasting peace were essential elements in the prevention of further conflict.

    ORISI RABUKAWAQA (Fiji) said that the increased challenges and complexities brought about by new peacekeeping missions called for a multilateral approach to ensure the desired level of credibility and integrity. The United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) was one mission that demanded a holistic approach and the cooperation of all Member States. Fiji would serve with the UNAMI, fully cognizant of the challenges and risks involved, and aware of the grave consequences should the United Nations fail to respond effectively and in a timely manner to the Iraqi request.

    He said that United Nations-sanctioned missions must retain their multilateral focus, in particular the engagement of the developing countries. Fiji was grateful for the DPKO efforts to establish financial support mechanisms to help troop-contributing countries that might need such assistance, and supported the call for effective and open recruitment procedures. While the issue of merit should continue to be a strong requirement of civilian staff appointments, regional representation, gender balance and the inclusion of civilians from developing countries should also be a consideration. All peacekeeping operations required sufficient resources, but more critical and regular reviews would ensure value for money.

    VICTOR KRYZHANIVSKY (Ukraine) said the political commitment of Member States, and the provision of financial and human resources were needed now, more than ever, if peacekeeping was to remain effective.  He noted that his country was the largest troop-contributing country in Europe, contributing not only civilian police, but also lift capacity, helicopter resources and other equipment.  It was ready to remain a reliable partner of the United Nations in that area.

    He said he encouraged efforts aimed at enhancing United Nations cooperation with regional organizations and strengthening their capacity, especially in Africa. He was deeply concerned with increasing danger to peacekeeping personnel and welcomed the introduction of Joint Mission Analysis cells and application of the relevant Convention to confront that problem.

    For more rapid deployment, he said he supported efforts to make existing mechanisms more effective.  At the same time, he said, new options could be explored, including the strategic reserve concept, keeping in mind that such measures may be subject to national decisions, and financial mechanisms needed to be worked out.  On that subject, it was important to continue to look for ways to ensure timely reimbursements for troop-contributing countries.  Finally, he paid tribute to the men and women who had served and sacrificed in peacekeeping operations.

    YOUSSOUF KONE (Mali) said it was urgent to seek ways and means to deal with the increased needs for peacekeeping.  For that reason, it was important to strengthen regional organizations.  Mali had always participated in peacekeeping on the regional, subregional and international levels, sometimes through national funding.  He described the peacekeeping operations centre of his country, which operated in coordination with the United Nations and bilateral partners.

    As it was not possible for many countries to provide the necessary resources for peacekeeping efforts, he welcomed the assistance of developed countries in that area.  Finally, he urged that the international community maintain and increase its commitment to United Nations peacekeeping.

    NEBOJSA KALUDJEROVIC (Serbia and Montenegro) underlined the importance of establishing the rule of law in post-conflict societies, saying that aspect of peacekeeping operations should be further strengthened and should be included in the mandates of peacekeeping operations.  In that regard, system-wide coordination and cooperation with entities outside the United Nations should be enhanced, in particular with regional organizations. It was essential that all activities aimed at establishing the rule of law were based on substantive participation of all national constituencies.  However, broad public participation was only possible if the security needs of the population were met, she said, noting that in some cases the United Nations had failed to ensure a secure environment conducive to the restoration of the rule of law.

    She said one of those cases was unfortunately the province of Kosovo and Metohija, where the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) had failed to provide security for all inhabitants.  The non-Albanian population had been exposed to ethnically-motivated attacks.  The human rights situation in the province was due to the lack of security.  In such a situation, where one part of the population -- Serbs and other non-Albanians -- was struggling to survive, and a significant part of the population remained displaced with virtually no chance of return in the near futures, it was hard to expect that all stakeholders could participate in the political process in the province, aimed at building a multi-ethnic and multi-cultural society.  A delay in the deployment of the rule of law components within the UNMIK had, among other things, created a culture of impunity in cases of ethnically-motivated violence.

    MÓNICA BOLAÑOS-PEREZ (Guatemala), aligning herself with the statements on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement and the Rio Group, said her country had been host to a small operation authorized by the Security Council in its resolution 1094 (1997), within the context of a broader mission authorized by the General Assembly to monitor compliance with the Peace Accords of December 1996.  The work of the Organization was indeed at a crossroads, and the question might be asked whether it had sufficient management capacities, troops, resources and political will to meet the increasing demand for bigger and more complex peacekeeping missions.  There was a need to bring supply in line with demand.

    She said her country’s contribution to peacekeeping budgets had not matched its contribution to the regular budget.  Guatemala had signed the memorandum of understanding regarding stand-by forces and contributed to peacekeeping operations in Cote d’Ivoire and Burundi and would contribute to United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH).  She said the Organization now had far better knowledge on how to address the challenges. This was thanks to, among other things, implementation of the recommendations of the Brahimi report.  Also, useful partnerships had been established between the United Nations and regional bodies such as African Union and Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).  It was necessary to prepare public opinion for the fact that supply in peacekeeping must meet demand.  After all, preventing conflict and building and maintaining peace was cheaper than war.

    ANAS ELTAYEB ELGAILANI MUSTAFA (Sudan) associating himself with the NAM, said that peacekeeping had achieved much in Africa, but should not be a diversion from the quest for political solutions to conflicts and development efforts that addressed the root causes of those conflicts.  Such a search required a holistic approach.  Coordination with regional organizations had produced satisfactory results when those organizations were supported by the international community.  The experience in Darfur had underlined the difficulties faced in such situations.

    He called on peacekeeping operations to abide by their mandates, the United Nations Charter and the principles of objectivity and neutrality.  Work teams planning peacekeeping efforts in the Sudan had performed admirably and there was a need for support to help the country achieve peace and sustainable development.  The international community should extend urgent assistance so that the African Union and its forces in Darfur could succeed.

    KYAW TIN (Myanmar), associating himself with the NAM, reiterated that peacekeeping operations should observe strictly the principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations Charter, particularly the consent of the parties,  impartiality and non-use of force except in self-defence.  Clearly defined mandates, as well as objective and secure financing were also essential.  It must also be stressed that peacekeeping was not a substitute for permanent solutions that addressed the root causes of conflict.

    Utmost priority must also be given to enhancing the security of peacekeeping personnel, he said.  Regarding the financial burden of peacekeeping operations, Myanmar had always tried its best not to fail in its obligations.  The 10 largest troop-contributing countries were developing countries with limited means.  Outlining Myanmar’s contribution to peacekeeping, he said there was a need to strengthen the relationships among those who planned, mandated and managed peacekeeping operations and those who implemented them.  Myanmar therefore welcomed meaningful consultations among the Security Council, the Secretariat and troop-contributing countries.

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